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The intuitive algorithmRoger Penrose considered it impossible. Thinking could never imitate a computer process. He said as much in his book, The Emperor's New Mind. But, a new book, The Intuitive Algorithm, (IA), suggested that intuition was a pattern recognition process. Intuition propelled information through many neural regions like a lightning streak. Data moved from input to output in a reported 20 milliseconds. The mind saw, recognized, interpreted and acted. In the...

Artificial Intelligence And Intuition

Artificial Intelligence And IntuitionThe intuitive algorithmRoger Penrose considered it impossible. Thinking could never imitate a computer process. He said as much in his book, The Emperor's New Mind. But, a new book, The Intuitive Algorithm, (IA), suggested that intuition was a pattern recognition process. Intuition propelled information through many neural regions like a lightning streak. Data moved from input to output in a reported 20 milliseconds. The mind saw, recognized, interpreted and acted. In the blink of an eye. Myriad processes converted light, sound, touch and smell instantly into your nerve impulses. A dedicated region recognized those impulses as objects and events. The limbic system, another region, interpreted those events to generate emotions. A fourth region responded to those emotions with actions. The mind perceived, identified, evaluated and acted. Intuition got you off the hot stove in a fraction of a second. And it could be using a simple algorithm.Is instant holistic evaluation impossible?The system, with over a hundred billion neurons, processed the information from input to output in just half a second. All your knowledge was evaluated. Walter Freeman, the famous neurobiologist, defined this amazing ability. "The cognitive guys think it's just impossible to keep throwing everything you've got into the computation every time. But, that is exactly what the brain does. Consciousness is about bringing your entire history to bear on your next step, your next breath, your next moment." The mind was holistic. It evaluated all its knowledge for the next activity. How could so much information be processed so quickly? Where could such knowledge be stored? Exponential growth of the search path Unfortunately, the recognition of subtle patterns posed formidable problems for computers. The difficulty was an exponential growth of the recognition search path. The problems in the diagnosis of diseases was typical. Normally, many shared symptoms were presented by a multitude of diseases. For example, pain, or fever could be indicated for many diseases. Each symptom pointed to several diseases. The problem was to recognize a single pattern among many overlapping patterns. When searching for the target disease, the first selected ailment with the first presented symptom could lack the second symptom. This meant back and forth searches, which expanded exponentially as the database of diseases increased in size. That made the process absurdly long drawn theoretically, even years of search, for extensive databases. So, in spite of their incredible speed, rapid "pattern recognition" on computers could never be imagined.The Intuitive AlgorithmBut, industry strength pattern recognition was feasible. IA introduced an algorithm, which could instantly recognize patterns in extended databases. The relationship of each member of the whole database was coded for each question.(Is pain a symptom of the disease?)Disease1Y, Disease2N, Disease3Y, Disease 4Y, Disease5N, Disease6N, Disease7Y, Disease8N, Disease9N, Disease10N, Disease11Y, Disease12Y, Disease13N, Disease14U, Disease15Y, Disease16N, Disease17Y, Disease18N, Disease19N, Disease20N, Disease21N, Disease22Y, Disease23N, Disease24N, Disease25U, Disease26N, Disease27N, Disease28U, Disease27Y, Disease30N, Disease31U, Disease32Y, Disease33Y, Disease34U, Disease35N, Disease36U, Disease37Y, Disease38Y, Disease39U, Disease40Y, Disease41Y, Disease42U, Disease43N, Disease44U, Disease45Y, Disease46N, Disease47N, Disease48Y, (Y = Yes: N = No: U = Uncertain)The key was to use elimination to evaluate the database, not selection. Every member of the database was individually coded for elimination in the context of each answer. (Is pain a symptom of the disease? Answer: YES)Disease1Y, xxxxxxN, Disease3Y, Disease4Y, xxxxxx5N, xxxxxx6N, Disease7Y, xxxxxx8N, xxxxxx9N, xxxxxx0N, Disease11Y, Disease12Y, xxxxxx13N, Disease14U, Disease15Y, xxxxxx16N, Disease17Y, xxxxxx18N, xxxxxx19N, xxxxxx20N, xxxxxx21N, Disease22Y, xxxxxx23N, xxxxxx24N, Disease25U, xxxxxx26N, xxxxxx27N, Disease28U, Disease27Y, xxxxxx30N, Disease31U, Disease32Y, Disease33Y, Disease34U, xxxxxx35N, Disease36U, Disease37Y, Disease38Y, Disease39U, Disease40Y, Disease41Y, Disease42U, xxxxxx43N, Disease 44U, Disease45Y, xxxxxx46N, xxxxxx47N, Disease 48Y, (All "N" Diseases eliminated.)For disease recognition, if an answer indicated a symptom, IA eliminated all diseases devoid of the symptom. Every answer eliminated, narrowing the search to reach diagnosis. (Is pain a symptom of the disease? Answer: NO)xxxxxx1Y, Disease2N, xxxxxx3Y, xxxxxx4Y, Disease5N, Disease6N, xxxxxx7Y, Disease8N, Disease9N, Disease10N, xxxxxx11Y, xxxxx12Y, Disease13N, Disease14U, xxxxxx15Y, Disease16N, xxxxxx17Y, Disease18N, Disease19N, Disease20N, Disease21N, xxxxxx22Y, Disease23N, Disease24N, Disease25U, Disease26N, Disease27N, Disease28U, xxxxxx27Y, Disease30N, Disease31U, xxxxxx32Y, xxxxxx33Y, Disease34U, Disease35N, Disease36U, xxxxxx37Y, xxxxxx38Y, Disease39U, xxxxxx40Y, xxxxxx41Y, Disease42U, Disease43N, Disease 44U, xxxxxx45Y, Disease46N, Disease47N, xxxxxx48Y, (All "Y" Diseases eliminated.)If the symptom was absent, IA eliminated all diseases which always exhibited the symptom. Diseases, which randomly presented the symptom were retained in both cases. So the process handled uncertainty the Maybe answer, which normal computer programs could not handle.(A sequence of questions narrows down to Disease29 - the answer.)xxxxxx1Y, xxxxxx2N, xxxxxx3Y, xxxxxx4Y, xxxxxx5N, xxxxxx6N, xxxxxx7Y, xxxxxx8N, xxxxxx9N, xxxxxx10N, xxxxxx11Y, xxxxxx12Y, xxxxxx13N, xxxxxx14U, xxxxxx15Y, xxxxxx16N, xxxxxx17Y,xxxxxx18N, xxxxxx19N, xxxxxx20N, xxxxxx21N, xxxxxx22Y, xxxxxx23N, xxxxxx24N, xxxxxx25U, xxxxxx26N, xxxxxx27N, xxxxxx28U, Disease29Y, xxxxxx30N, xxxxxx31U, xxxxxx32Y, xxxxxx33Y, xxxxxx34U, xxxxxx35N, xxxxxx36U, xxxxxx37Y, xxxxxx38Y, xxxxxx39U, xxxxxx40Y, xxxxxx41Y, xxxxxx42U, xxxxxx43N, xxxxxx44U, xxxxxx45Y, xxxxxx46N, xxxxxx47N, xxxxxx48Y. (If all diseases are eliminated, the disease is unknown.)Instant pattern recognition IA was proved in practice. It had powered Expert Systems acting with the speed of a simple recalculation on a spreadsheet, to recognize a disease, identify a case law or diagnose the problems of a complex machine. It was instant, holistic, and logical. If several parallel answers could be presented, as in the multiple parameters of a power plant, recognition was instant. For the mind, where millions of parameters were simultaneously presented, real time pattern recognition was practical. And elimination was the key.Elimination = Switching offElimination was switching off - inhibition. Nerve cells were known to extensively inhibit the activities of other cells to highlight context. With access to millions of sensory inputs, the nervous system instantly inhibited eliminated trillions of combinations to zero in on the right pattern. The process stoutly used "No" answers. If a patient did not have pain, thousands of possible diseases could be ignored. If a patient could just walk into the surgery, a doctor could overlook a wide range of illnesses. But, how could this process of elimination be applied to nerve cells? Where could the wealth of knowledge be stored?Combinatorial codingThe mind received kaleidoscopic combinations of millions of sensations. Of these, smells were reported to be recognized through a combinatorial coding process, where nerve cells recognized combinations. If a nerve cell had dendritic inputs, identified as A, B, C and so on to Z, it could then fire, when it received inputs at ABC, or DEF. It recognized those combinations. The cell could identify ABC and not ABD. It would be inhibited for ABD. This recognition process was recently reported by science for olfactory neurons. In the experiment scientists reported that even slight changes in chemical structure activated different combinations of receptors. Thus, octanol smelled like oranges, but the similar compound octanoic acid smelled like sweat. A Nobel Prize acknowledged that discovery in 2004. Galactic nerve cell memoriesCombinatorial codes were extensively used by nature. The four "letters" in the genetic code A, C, G and T were used in combinations for the creation of a nearly infinite number of genetic sequences. IA discusses the deeper implications of this coding discovery. Animals could differentiate between millions of smells. Dogs could quickly sniff a few footprints of a person and determine accurately which way the person was walking. The animal's nose could detect the relative odour strength difference between footprints only a few feet apart, to determine the direction of a trail. Smell was identified through remembered combinations. If a nerve cell had just 26 inputs from A to Z, it could receive millions of possible combinations of inputs. The average neuron had thousands of inputs. For IA, millions of nerve cells could give the mind galactic memories for combinations, enabling it to recognize subtle patterns in the environment. Each cell could be a single member of a database, eliminating itself (becoming inhibited) for unrecognized combinations of inputs.Elimination the keyElimination was the special key, which evaluated vast combinatorial memories. Medical texts reported that the mind had a hierarchy of intelligences, which performed dedicated tasks. For example, there was an association region, which recognized a pair of scissors using the context of its feel. If you injured this region, you could still feel the scissors with your eyes closed, but you would not recognize it as scissors. You still felt the context, but you would not recognize the object. So, intuition could enable nerve cells in association regions to use perception to recognize objects. Medical research reported many such recognition regions. Serial processingA pattern recognition algorithm, intuition enabled the finite intelligences in the minds of living things to respond holistically within the 20 millisecond time span. These intelligences acted serially. The first intelligence converted the kaleidoscopic combinations of sensory perceptions from the environment into nerve impulses. The second intelligence recognized these impulses as objects and events. The third intelligence translated the recognized events into feelings. A fourth translated feelings into intelligent drives. Fear triggered an escape drive. A deer bounded away. A bird took flight. A fish swam off. While the activities of running, flying and swimming differed, they achieved the same objective of escaping. Inherited nerve cell memories powered those drives in context.The mind seamless pattern recognitionHalf a second for a 100 billion nerve cells to use context to eliminate irrelevance and deliver motor output. The time between the shadow and the scream. So, from input to output, the mind was a seamless pattern recognition machine, powered by the key secret of intuition contextual elimination, from massive acquired and inherited combinatorial memories in nerve cells.

Professional Help with Your Computer May Be Cheaper Than You Think

Professional Help with Your Computer May Be Cheaper Than You Think

We all deal with them, those little computer problems that arent quite big enough to warrant a call to the Computer Guy. You know, like every once in a while your camera wont transfer its pictures the right way. Or like the times when all of a sudden your computer shuts down for no apparent reason and with no warning whatsoever. Dont forget those odd Run Time Errors with the crazy numbers in them. I love those. The worst part is, you could probably fix some of these things yourself if you just had a little help or guidance. Calling a professional, while sometimes necessary, can be both a greater inconvenience and of course a greater cost. It may take forever to contact them, and when you do get in touch with the help desk, they always make you reboot the thing twelve times before you get any real advice.Let me be clear on a couple things before we continue. First, I am a professional computer technician and have been working in the industry for over 15 years. There are numerous occasions where a professional is needed to help with or repair your PC. It is often my advice to have your system evaluated at least one every three months. On top of that, there are many things a novice should not try on their PC for fear of causing more harm than good. Not everything is this way though.Ive said it before and Ill say it again. Your best way to help maintain your computer is by staying informed and educated. Im not suggesting everyone run out and get a Computer Science degree, but I am suggesting you use some of the top notch free resources that are available to you. The largest these days is of course the internet.Dont get nervous yet, Im not suggesting you look up some super hi-tech article and study it until you know it inside and out. You dont have to. The net is full of people who already understand these things and are more than willing to pass some of that understanding on to you. They do this in forums.Forums are a wonderful thing. A lot of forums are actual cyber communities of people who love to talk about various topics. They have people of varying skill sets, all interacting in a friendly supportive way. I know theres a free computer support forum out there with people in it just waiting to answer some of your questions.So next time those pop ups are driving you crazy, and you cant reach your favorite help desk, stop by a computer "support forum" . Youll be surprised at how good an experience it can be.-Dave

Computer Recycling Switch To Environmental Friendly Mode

Computer Recycling  Switch To Environmental Friendly Mode

Computer recycling refers to the practice of salvaging useable components from obsolete electronic devices or safely disposing off electronic devices. It is a practice that each one of us must inculcate because inappropriate handling of discarded computers and other electronic devices can cause environmental hazards.Studies estimate that over 40 million electronic pieces become obsolete annually. These pieces have constituents such as lead, cadmium, barium, and mercury, which are hazardous to the environment. In a landfill, these materials seep into the ground and then into our food and water supplies. This can cause serious health concerns over a long period.Obsolete Computers: Environmental ThreatsObsolete computers that are simply dumped in the garbage drums are the biggest threat to the environment. The computer monitors have cathode ray tubes containing four to five pounds of lead that contaminates the environment acutely. Besides lead, the computers have many other hazardous elements such as mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium. When inhaled over a long period, these elements cause high blood pressure, liver and nerve disease, blood with poor iron, and even brain damage to the exposed group. This causes great concern, considering several million computers become obsolete annually.Therefore, we must handle the obsolete electronic devices carefully. Moreover, different Environmental Laws have banned the illegal landfills by the disposals of computers and other electronic equipment. These laws necessitate sending the un-functional computers to a reputable recycler for harmless recycling. The laws also specify the need for regular recycling to avoid such computers from piling up.There are several methods to deal with old computers. Some of them are as follows: Give It For Reuse: If your computer is in a decent condition, you can sell it to a company or an individual so that it can be used further, or simply donate it to someone needy. Trade It In: There are many computer dealers (e.g. HP) who offer trade-in promotions on computers and peripherals. Auction It: You can sell the computer on eBay or any other auction site. You can also organize a quick garage sale and see if any of your friends or neighbors wants the computer. Set up a Server: You can continue using the old computer as a server to store and share data. Salvage Some Parts: You can see which parts of your computers are in good working condition. You can salvage those parts and use them in your new computer.Go for computer recycling and safe the planet earth!

IT Marketing: Finding Prospect Lists

IT Marketing: Finding Prospect Lists

After you write your long sales letter, you need to know who to send it to. In this article, you'll learn where to find an advertising list and trade organization listings to help with your IT marketing efforts.Advertising ListsFor list selection, you have many choices. If you're looking for recommendations, especially in the U.S., it's really simple. You have list compiler companies like Zap Data (), and InfoUSA (). For your "IT marketing" , they're a good place to start.Tip: For renting mailing lists outside the U.S., start looking at:Accountable List Brokers - in AustraliaList Angels - in the United KingdomInfoUSA also has Canadian lists To go deeper, look at the local chambers and the industry trade groups where you can skim out some additional contact information for your IT marketing list. And certainly don't overlook your local newspapers and business journals for additional leads. Getting Involved in Trade OrganizationsOver time, you will build up your IT marketing client list and end up with two clients that are, for example, dentists. You have experience in installing small LANs and setting up networks and all the X-ray, digital imaging software and all the patient chart management. You know exactly what to do with a dentist's office. So it makes sense to look for other prospects that are just like these dentists because it's a lot easier to sell to them.Hang out Where Your Clients Do The best way to reach those kinds of prospects is to look around for the trade groups that this particular occupation or industry would belong to. Go to their meetings and conferences, and take out a table in their local expos. Become active so you can be a panelist on something technology-related or write an article for one of their industry publications. The key here is to get referrals. Don't Over-do ItDon't run out to join more than two or three industry organizations at a time because that can easily take up a big chunk of your week. Ease into this over the next couple of months and get reasonably active. Don't get to the point that it starts digging into your job like getting on the board of directors or anything thing like that. But you do need to go to the meetings. If you go a few times a year, you will start meeting enough people to make the word of mouth referral potentially significant.The Bottom Line on IT Marketing In IT marketing, finding your potential customers is paramount. To build your prospect list, buy or rent some advertising lists and go to the industry events of your customers. Become reasonably active in these organizations so you can build your referral business.

Addiction: When Gambling Becomes a Problem

While most people enjoy casino gambling, sports betting, lottery and bingo playing for the fun and excitement it provides, others may experience gambling as an addictive and distractive habit. Statistics show that while 85 percent of the adult population in the US enjoys some type of gambling every year, between 2 and 3 percent of will develop a gambling problem and 1 percent of them are diagnosed as pathological gamblers. Where can you draw the line between harmless gambling to problem gambling? How can you tell if you or your friend are compulsive gamblers? Here you can find answers to these questions and other questions regarding "problem gambling" and gambling addiction. What is the Meaning of Problem Gambling?Problem gambling or compulsive gambling is defined as an uncontrollable urge to gamble despite the destructive effect of gambling on the gamblers life and despite feelings of guilt and remorse. Problem gambling tends to have a negative effect on the gamblers financial state, relationships and daily life. Severe cases of problem gambling can be defined as pathological gambling. Am I a Compulsive Gambler?1) Do you gamble until your last penny runs out?2) Do you gamble to win back your former losses or debts?3) Did you ever had to borrow money to continue gamble?4) Did your gambling habit ever made you lie to your friends or family?5) Did you ever skip work or other obligation to gamble?6) Do you tend to gamble to forget about your personal problems or to celebrate happy occasions?7) Does gambling have a negative affect on your daily life or relationships?If you have answered yes on at least one of the questions listed above, then you have a problem. Can Anyone Become a Compulsive Gambler?Theoretically, yes. Any gambler can develop "gambling problem" regardless to the type of gambling he is occupied with, the amount of money and time he is spending on gambling. Researches show that slot machines that can be found in bars and convenient stores are the most addictive type of gambling activity, while lottery draws and bingo games are located on the other end of the scale. Gambling addiction is an emotional problem; its symptoms, causes and treatments are similar to any other form of addiction. How Can I treat Gambling Addiction?1) Group Therapy:Gamblers Anonymous offers a 12 step self help program similar to the one offered to alcohol addicts in Alcoholics Anonymous. Group therapy also offers gambling addicts advice and support from professional counselors and other gambling addicts in different phases of their recovery process. Gambler Anonymous centers are available in more than 1,200 locations statewide.2) Individual Therapy:Cognitive or behavior therapy can help gambling addicts to identify their unaware thinking and acting patterns, which led them to gamble compulsively, and to replace them with controllable and healthier ways of thinking.3) Psychiatric Medication:It has recently been proven that antidepressant medications from the family of SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can be affective in treatment of gambling addicts.

How To Add A USB 2.0 Hub To Your Computer

Digital and video Cameras, scanners, mp3 players, and just about every other electronic device are designed to be connected to your computer.And all new computers make it simple to connect these devices with the use of the USB or Universal Serial Bus port. But with the many devices you may have,you can still run short of these ports.If you find your computer using all of its USB ports, you can get your hands on a USB Hub. This hub contains several usb ports. So rather than unplugging one device to plug in another, a usb hub allows you to connect multiple devices.To setup a usb hub on your computer you need to be sure your system allow you to connect the hub. If your computer was made before 1997 it most likely won't support a USB.Check your computer to see if there is a usb port available. http://www.ultimatepcrepair.com/photos.html have photos showing what USB ports look like and where they should be found in any computer.You should consider the reason you want to purchase a USB hub. This will help in deciding the type of usb hub you want to purchase. And research the device you want to connect, as not all devices can be connected to USB hubs.The two types of USB hubs are the Self Powered which draws power from an external power supply and the bus powered hub which is inserted in an expansion slot and draws power from the motherboard.Some devices that use large amounts of power work poorly with bus powered hubs. A scanner for example, will wotk much better connected to a self powered USB hub.When connecting a device to the USB hub, see what version of usb it may be. USB 1.0 was the first version released and today the fast version is the usb 2.0 All USB 2.0 hubs are backward compatible. This allows them to run the slower USB 1.0 devices.The price of a hub 2.0 hub varies from about $25.00 to $65.00 and comes in several brands. The price depends on the number of ports you want on the hub.INSTALLING YOUR NEW USB HUBIts always a good practice to backup your files before you work in your computer.Remove the hub from its packing and carefully inspect it for damaged and be sure all components are present. Stop and carefully read the hub manual for instructions such as turn the computer off first or that you must install the software before connecting the hub to the computer.If you have a powered hub, plug the power cord in an outlet and connect the usb cable from the usb hub into an open USB port. With the hub connected place the cdrom that come with the hub and install the software onto the hard drive.Set the USB hub in a location where you can easily connect your scanner,modem,or other devices. Remember that your computer only runs at the highest usb speed.If your hub is a USB 2.0 but your computer only supports USB 1.0 then the 1.0 connection will be your max speed.If your USB hub is self powered,install the card in an empty expansion slot by removing the system unit cover, removing the retaining screw and cover from the slot, firmly slide the card in the slot, and use the retaining screw to secure it to the motherboard.Start your computer and your operating system should recognize the new device. Install any software that came with the hub.You may need to install a device driver to allow the computer to communicate with the hub.Its that easy and why not make it something fun to do. Learn as you go and be in the state of mind to enjoy your task. You will look forward to perform other tasks in the same state of mind.

Summary

The intuitive algorithmRoger Penrose considered it impossible. Thinking could never imitate a computer process. He said as much in his book, The Emperor's New Mind. But, a new book, The Intuitive Algorithm, (IA), suggested that intuition was a pattern recognition process. Intuition propelled information through many neural regions like a lightning streak. Data moved from input to output in a reported 20 milliseconds. The mind saw, recognized, interpreted and acted. In the...